DUBUQUE, county, Iowa. Situated in the N. r. part of the ter. It has the Mississippi r. on its s. E. border. Watered on the N. bv Turkey r., on the s. by branches of the N. fork of Macoquetais r, and in the central part by Little Macoquetais river, and several small creeks, which flow into the Mississippi. Capital, Dubuque. There were in 1840, neat cattle 2,175, sheep 36, swine 4,8118; wheat 10,799 bush, produced, rye 715, Ind. com 16,762, buckwheat 850, oats 17,951, potatoes 49,195; 11 smelting houses produced 500,000 pounds lead; 30 stores, cap. $123,300; 1 distillery, 2 flouring m., 1 grist m., 3 saw m , 1 printing office, 1 weekly newspaper. Cap. in manufac. $6,000. 2 sell. 60 scholars. Pop. 3,059. (Haskell's Complete Descriptive and Statistical Gazetteer of the the United States...,1840)
DUBUQUE COUNTY. Dubuque is one of the oldest counties in the State, being one of the two original Districts, from which the principal eastern counties of the State were formed. It embraces the most noted portions of the mineral region, and, singular as it may appear, though in the very heart of the mineral region, the soil is generally of the most productive character, yielding large crops of grain. Few countries in the world possess the combined advantages of a soil rich in fertility, and at the same time underlaid with inexhaustible veins of lead ore. Lead is the great staple of export, as will be seen by the annexed statistics. Copper and zinc have also been discovered, but not in sufficient quantities to induce capitalists to enlist in the work of developing them. Several valuable lodes or veins of lead were discovered during the past winter.
The country west of Dubuque City is strikingly beautiful, and well watered. It is a rolling prairie, interspersed with groves of timber, while along the small streams running from north to south there are large bodies of good timber, and extensive water-power. Several adjoining counties, as well as Dubuque, are well settled — the land all entered by actual settlers. Mineral lots are laid off in almost every conceivable shape, and contain about ten acres each.
The city of Dubuque, one of the largest and most densely populated in the State, is handsomely situated upon a natural terrace. The streets run parallel to each other, and owing to the peculiar soil at this location, are never muddy. This city is more compactly built, and contains a greater proportion of fine buildings than any other place in the State. Among these the Catholic Cathedral, court-house, and hotels stand prominent. The city is bounded on the west by a range of high cliffs, from which the prospect of the city and county is entrancingly beautiful.
Three daily newspapers are published in Dubuque : the "Express and Herald,'' the "Tribune," and the "Observer," each issuing, beside, a weekly edition. We have not the name of the weekly German paper.
The population of Dubuque County, according to the census of 1854, is 16,513; and of the city, according to West's Statistics, 10,000. The number of buildings erected in the city last year was 332. Of the society in Dubuque we need not remark farther than to state, that this population of 10,000 ably support eleven churches, one female seminary, one college, five select and common schools, twenty-four lawyers, and fourteen physicians.
This city being the present terminus of two important railroads, must necessarily become a place of great commercial importance. Good investments can be made in the establishing, at Dubuque, of manufactories of Red and White Lead, Lead Pipe, Shot, and Sheet Lead. Capitalists should investigate this matter. ...
The immigration to Iowa, in 1854, at this point, as well as others, was very large. The amount of the public domain sold at the Dubuque Land Office, during the year, is : cash sales, 1,120,000 acres; located with Military Warrants, 250,000. The snug sum of $3,961,736 in specie was exported to St. Louis from this Land Office, during the year ; this exceeds the like exports of ten previous years. (Iowa As It Is in 1855; A Gazetteer for Citizens..., 1855)