Missouri, one of the western United States, is bounded N. by Iowa Territory; E. by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, from which it is separated by the Mississippi river; 8. by Arkansas; and w. by the Indian Territory. It is between 36° and 40° 36" N. lat., and between 89° and 95° 30/ w. Ion., and between 12° 17' and 17° 28' w. Ion. from W. It is 287 miles long, and 230 broad, containing 64,000 square miles, or 40,960,000 acres. The population in 1810, was 19,833; in 1820, 66,586; in 1830, 140,074; in 1840, 383,702, of which 58,240 were slaves. Of the free population, 173,470 were white males; 150,418 do. females; 883 were colored males; 691 do. females. Employed in agriculture, 92,408 ; in commerce, 2,522; in manufactures and trades, 11,100; in mining, 742; navigating the ocean, 39 ; do. canals, rivers, &c. 1,885; learned professions, 1,469.
This state is divided into 62 counties, which, with their population in 1840, and their capitals, were as follows: Audrain, 1,949, Mexico; Barry, 4,795, McDonald; Benton, 4,205, Warsaw; Boone, 13,561, Columbia; Buchanan, 6,237, Sparta; Caldwell, 1,458, Far West; Callaway, 11,765, Fulton; Cape Girardeau, 9,359, Jackson; Carroll, 2,433, Carrollton; Chariton, 4,746, Keytesville; Clare, 2,846, Waterloo; Clay, 8,282, Liberty; Clinton, 2,724, Plattsburg; Cole, 9,286, Jefferson City; Cooper, 10,484, Booneville; Crawford, 3,561, Steelville; Daviess, 2,736, Gallatin; Franklin, 7,515, Union; Gasconade, 5,330, Herman; Greene, 5,372, Springfield; HowArd, 13,103, Fayette; Jackson, 7,612, Independence; Jefferson, 4,296, Hillsboro'; Johnson, 4,471, Warrensburg; La Fayette, 6,815, Lexington; Lewis, 6,040, Monticello; Lincoln, 7,449, Troy; Linn, 2,245, Linneus; Livingston, 4,325, Chilicothe; Macon, 6,034, Bloomington ; Madison, 3,395, Fredericktown; Marion, 9,623, Palmyra; Miller, 2,282, Tuscumbia; Monroe, 9,505, Paris; Morgan, 4,407, Versailles; Montgomery, 4,371, Danville; New Madrid, 4,554, New Madrid, Newton, 3,790, Neosho; Perry, 5,760, Perryville; Pettis, 2,930, Georgetown; Platte, 8,913, Platte City; Pike, 10,646, Bowling Green: Polk, 8,449, Bolivar; Pulaski, 6,529, Waynesville; Ralls, 5,670, New London ; Randolph, 7,198, Huntsville; Kay, 6,553, Richmond; Ripley, 2,856, Van Buren; Rives, (name changed to Henry,) 4,726, Clinton; St. Charles, 7,911, St. Charles; St. Francis, 3,211, Furmington; St. Genevieve, 3,148, St. Genevieve; St. Louis, 35,979, St Louis; Saline, 5,258, Marshall; Scott, 5,974, Benton ; Shelby, 3,056, Shelbyville; Stoddard, 3,153, Bloomfield; Taney, 3,264, Forsyth; Van Buren, 4,693, Harrisonville; Warren, 4,253, Warrenton; Washington, 7,213, Potosi; Wayne, 3,403, Greenville. There have been several new counties erected since 1840.
Jefferson City, on the s. bank of the Missouri river, 15 miles above the mouth of the Osage r., is the seat of government.
This state presents a great variety of surface and of soil. Alluvial or bottom land is found on the margin of the rivers ; receding from them, the land rises, sometimes almost imperceptibly, sometimes very abruptly, into elevated barrens or rocky ridges. In the interior, bottoms and barrens, naked hills and prairies, heavy forests and streams of water, may often be seen at one view, presenting a diversified and beautiful landscape. The southeast part of the state has a very extensive tract of low marshy country, abounding in lakes, and liable to inundation. Back of this, a hilly country extends as for as the Osage river. This portion of the state, though not generally distinguished for the fertility of its soil, though it is interspersed with fertile portions, is particularly celebrated for its mineral treasures. Of the minerals and fossils already discovered, the principal are lead, coal, plaster, iron, manganese, zinc, antimony, cobalt, various kinds of ochre, common salt, nitre, plumbago, porphyry, jasper, chalcedony, and marble. Lead is extensively found; a district 100 miles long and 40 brood, the centre of which is 70 miles s. w. of St. Louis, and about 35 from Herculaneum, is the part of the state where it is procured in the greatest abundance. This lead region covers an area of more than 3,000 square miles. The ore is of the richest kind, and exists in quantities more than sufficient to supply the demand of the whole United States. The iron mines are scarcely less remarkable than the lead. In St. Francis county exists the celebrated "mountain" of micaceous oxide of iron, which has an elevation of 300 feet above the surrounding plain, is a mile and a half across its summit, and yields 80 per of cent pure metal. Five miles south is another magnificent pyramidal "mountain," denominated the Pilot Knob, 300 feet high, with a base a mile and a half in circumference, of the same rich species of iron ore. This pyramid is not in plates, but huge masses of several tons in weight, which yields also 80 per cent of pure metal. Washington county is a perfect bed of metallic treasures. Throughout the mineral district, are found beds of rich, red, marl clay, which proves to be the very best manure for the soil. Between the Osage and Missouri rivers, is a tract of country very fertile, and agreeably diversified with woodland and prairie, and abounding with coal, salt springs, Ac. The country north of the Missouri is emphatically the "garden of the west." There is no part in the world where a greater extent of country can be traversed more easily, when in its natural state. The surface is for the most part delightfully rolling and variegated, sometimes rising into picturesque hills, then stretching away into a sea of prairie, occasionally interspersed with shady groves and shining streams. Almost every acre of this country is susceptible of high agricultural improvement. The chief productions are tobacco, cotton, Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, and grasses. Large numbers of horses, mules, horned cattle, sheep, and hogs are annually raised for exportation.
In the year 1840, there were in this state 196,132 horses and mules; 433,875 neat cattle; 349,018 sheep; 1,271,161 swine; poultry valued at $270,647. There were produced 1,037,386 bushels of wheat; 9,801 of barley; 2,234,947 of oats; 68,608 of rye; 15,318 of buckwheat; 17,332,524 of Indian corn; 562,265 pounds of wool; 56,461 of wax; 783,768 bushels of potatoes; 49,083 tons of hay; 18,010 of hemp and flax; 9,067,913 pounds of tobacco; 121,121 of cotton; 274353 of sugar. The products of the dairy were valued at $100,432; of the orchard at $90,878; of lumber at $70,355.
The climate of this state, though generally healthy, is subject to great extremes of heat and cold. The Missouri is frozen so hard for a number of weeks in the winter, as to be safely crossed with loaded wagons. In the summer, the heat is often great, but the air is generally pure, and dry, and salubrious.
The Mississippi winds along the entire eastern boundary of the state, for a distance of 400 miles, and receives in its course the waters of the great Missouri, which, indeed, deserves to be regarded as the main stream. Through the central and richest part of the state the Missouri rolls its immense volume of water, being navigable for steamboats 1,800 ms. from its entrance into the Mississippi, for 4 or 5 months in the year. The La Mine, Osage, and Gasconade on the s., and the Grand and Chariton on the N. side, are navigable tributaries of the Missouri. Maramec river runs through the mineral district, is a navigable stream, and enters the Mississippi 18 miles below St. Louis. Salt river, which is also navigable, enters the Mississippi 85 miles above the Missouri. The White and St. Francis drain the s. E. and the tributaries of the Neosho the s. w. part of the state.
St. Louis is much the largest and most commercial place in the state. It is situated on the w. bank of the Mississippi, 18 miles below the mouth of the Missouri. St. Genevieve, about 100 miles w. of the Mississippi, and 64 below St. Louis, is settled principally by French, and has considerable trade, particularly in lead. Potosi, in the mining district, is a flourishing town. Herculaneum is the principal place of deposit for lead from the mines. New Madrid is the most noted landing place for boats on the Mississippi, above Natchez, and Clarkesville and Hannibal n. of St. Louis. St. Charles, on the Missouri, 20 miles above St. Louis, is an important place, and Booneville, Lexington, Liberty, and Independence, in the w. part of the state. Jefferson City, the capital, on the Missouri, 134 miles from St. Louis, is a growing place.
There were in 1840, 3 commercial and 39 commission houses engaged in foreign trade, with a capital of $746,500; 1,107 retail dry goods and other stores, with a capital of $8,158,802: 345 persons employed in the lumber trade, with a capital of $318,029; 79 persons engaged in internal transportation, who, with 128 butchers, packers, &c., employed a capital of $173,650. The amount of home-made or family manufactures was $1,149,544; there were 9 woollen manufactories, employing 13 persons, producing articles to the amount of $13,750, and employing a capital of $5,000; 2 furnaces, producing 180 tons of cast iron, and 4 forges, &c., producing 118 tons of bar iron, the whole employing 80 persons, and a capital of $79,000; 21 smelting houses, producing 5,295,455 pounds of lead, employing 252 persons, and a capital of $235,806; 69 persons produced 219,302 bushels of bituminous coal, employing a capital of $9,488; 30 persons produced 13,150 bushels of salt, with a capital of $3,550; 12 potteries produced articles to the amount of $12,175, employing 33 persons, and a capital of $7,250; 191 persons produced machinery to the amount of $190,412; 48 persons produced 959 small-arms; 12 persons manufactured the precious metals to the amount of $5,450; 73 persons produced granite and marble to the amount of $32,050; 671 persons produced bricks and lime to the amount of $185,234; 293 distilleries produced 508,368 gallons, and 7 breweries produced 374,700 gallons, the whole employing 365 persons, and a capital of $189,976; 201 persons produced carriages and wagons to the amount of $97,112, with a capital of $45,074; 1 powder mill, employing 2 persons, produced 7,500 pounds of gunpowder, with a capital of $1,050; 8 persons produced drugs and paints to the amount of $13,500, with a capital of $7,000; 64 flouring mills produced 49,363 barrels of flour, and, with other mills, employed 1,326 persons, producing articles to the amount of $960,058, with a capital of $1,266,019; 413 brick or stone houses, and 2,202 wooden houses, were built by 1,966 persons, and cost $1,441,573; 40 printing offices, 6 daily, ". semi-weekly, or tri-weekly, and 24 weekly newspapers, employed 143 persons, and a capital of $79,350. The whole amount of capital employed in manufactures was $2,704,405.
The University of St. Louis, (a Catholic institution,) at St. Louis, was founded in 1829; St. Mary's College, at Barrens, (also Catholic,) was founded in 1830; Marion College, at New Palmyra, was founded in 1831; Missouri University, at Columbia, was founded in 1840; St. Charles College, at St. Charles, is a Methodist institution, founded in 1839; Fayette College, at Fayette, is a new institution. In all these colleges there were in 1840, 495 students. There were in the state, 47 academies, with 1,926 students; and 642 primary and common schools, with 16,788 scholars. There were 19,457 white persons over 20 years of age who could neither read nor write.
In 1836 the Methodists had 51 travelling preachers, and 8,692 members; the Baptists had 146 churches, 86 ministers, and 4,972 communicants; the Presbyterians had 33 churches and 17 ministers; the Roman Catholics had 1 bishop and 30 ministers; the Episcopalians had 3 ministers. Besides these there were a considerable number of Cumberland and Associate Reformed Presbyterians, and 1 Unitarian minister.
In 1839, there were in this state 3 banks and branches, with an aggregate capital of $1,116,123, and a circulation of $410,740.
At the close of 1840, the state debt amounted to $2,929,557.
The constitution of this state was formed at St. Louis in 1820. The Governor is elected by the people for 4 years, but is ineligible for the next succeeding 4 years. A lieutenant-governor is chosen at the same time, and for the same term, who is president of the senate. Every county is entitled to send one representative, but the whole number can never exceed 100. The senators are elected every 4 years, one half retiring every second year; and their number can never be less than 14, nor more than 33, chosen by districts, and apportioned according to the number of free white inhabitants. The elections for senators and representatives are held biennially in August. The legislature meets once in two years, in the month of November, at Jefferson City. Every male white citizen, over 21 years of age, who has resided one year in the state and three months of it in the county in which he offers his vote, is entitled to the right of suffrage. The judges of the supreme court and the chancellor are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, and hold their offices during good behavior, or until 65 years of age.
The territory of this state was included in Louisiana, purchased of the French government in 1803. The town of St. Louis was settled by the French in 1764, but was little more than a trading post with the Indians, until it came into the possession of the United States. In 1804 it was constituted a territory, and in 1821 it was admitted to the Union, after much debate on the subject of slavery, allowed by its constitution, under certain restrictions. (Daniel Haskel and John Calvin Smith, A Complete Descriptive and Statistical Gazetteer of the United States of America ...Sherman & Smith, 1843)