SAUK COUNTY, situated in the central part of Wisconsin, with Wisconsin river on the south, which also traverses it in the northeast. Area, -------- square miles. Seat of justice, Adams. Pop. in 1850, 4,371. (Fanning's, 1853)

SAUK, a county in the S. W. central part of Wisconsin, contains about 800 square miles. It is intersected by the Baraboo river, and bounded on the S. and S. E. by the Wisconsin. The surface is undulating and hilly; and the soil productive. Timber is abundant in some parts. The county contained in 1850, 5 churches and 1 newspaper office. The Milwaukee and La Crosse railroad, now in progress, will pass through the county. Organized in 1844. Capital, Baraboo. Pop., 4371. (Baldwin's New and Complete Gazetteer of the United States..., 1854)

SAUK, County, is bounded on the north by Adams, on the east by Columbia, on the south by Iowa and Dane, and on the west by La Crosse, Bad Ax, and Richland. It was set off from Crawford in 1839; established, and annexed to Dane for judicial purposes, January, 1840, and fully organized in 1844. The boundaries were changed March 6, 1849, and further changed 1853. The seat of justice is at Baraboo, on river of the same name, a few miles southeast from the centre of the county. It is connected with the third judicial circuit, the second congressional, and the twenty-third senate district, and, with Adams, sends one member to the assembly. The number of square miles is about 800. The soil, in every part where cultivation has been attempted, produces well, and seems peculiarly congenial to wheat. The timber, except on the Baraboo Bluffs, is oak in its different varieties. There is an almost inexhaustible body of heavy timber, consisting of sugar maple, elm, basswood, iron wood, hickory, butternut, oak, cherry, &c. The surface of the country is generally undulating—in some places level, in others hilly—presenting, perhaps, as great a variety as any county in the State. Its leading geological formation is old red sand stone. On the higher points there are occasionally found the remains of the carboniferous lime stone, so abundant in the northwest. The Baraboo Bluffs are sometimes considered as a formation peculiar to themselves; but as geologists do not seem to agree as to what they are, the opinion is ventured that they belong to the same class as the prevailing strata, but that by the action of some powerful agency of a vitrifying or igneous nature, their density has been increased, and their general appearance somewhat changed. They are harder, finer grained, and often much more highly colored, than the common sand stone. Large masses of conglomorate are often found among them, especially on the higher portions. These masses are composed of sand and smooth round stones of almost all sizes, from that of a pin head to several feet in diameter. In the diluvial deposites, along the banks of the river, are found masses of conglomerate in a transition state, a part firmly consolidated, a part only slightly so. No trace of fossil remains have yet been discovered, except in the carboniferous lime stone. There are no mines in the county worked at present with any degree of profit, though there are strong indications of copper, and a considerable quantity (five tons) was once dug on Copper Creek, near Reedsburg. Small fragments, weighing from an ounce to several pounds, are often found in different parts of the county, and there is at least a possibility that extensive mines may yet be found. A beautiful article of purple freestone occurs on the Baraboo bluffs, and a good quality of marble near the southwest part of the county, though neither yet has been much explored. The principal streams are the Wisconsin and Baraboo rivers, Honey, Dell and Narrows creeks. The Wisconsin river has as yet only been used for the purpose of navigation, though at present attention is being called to the construction of a dam across it at the Dells. Dell creek is a good sized stream for mill purposes; is about 15 miles long, and remarkable for the deep gulches through which it runs. There are several interesting caves in the sand stone rock in the vicinity of this stream. Narrows Creek is about twelve miles long, and affords several good mill sites. There is one mill in operation on the stream, and at its mouth is laid out the town of Excelsior. Honey Creek is about 25 miles in length, together with the rapidity of its current, renders it peculiarly serviceable as a water power. Several mills are already in operation upon the stream, and others are in process of erection. The Baraboo river, however, is the most important stream as a water power in the county, if not in the State. It is some 80 miles in length. There are already seven dams across it, each propelling from 1 to 3 mills. The rapids of this river at Baraboo are about two miles in length. The bed of the stream is rock; the amount of water is about 4,500 inches; the amount of fall, 50 feet. There are already in operation, along these rapids, 4 saw mills, running 5 saws; 1 flouring mill with 2 run of stone; (another, with 2 runs, was burned in the fall of 1852); 4 lath and picket factories, 1 carding machine, 1 iron foundry, 1 machine shop, 1 bark mill, and several turning lathes, and but a small portion of water is used. Other machinery is in process of erection along the stream, and many good mill sites yet lie untouched. Devil Lake is, perhaps, the only lake in the county worthy of notice. It occupies about a square mile, is situated a little over two miles south of the foot of the Baraboo rapids, and about three miles from Baraboo village. On the east, south and west of the lake, the rough, rocky banks rise from the edge of the water, almost perpendicularly, to the height of 150 or 200 feet. The smooth crystal water, and the steep, craggy rocks, presenting the most perfect contrast. On the north, the land gradually rises for a short distance, and then as gradually slopes away to the Baraboo river. Although several attempts have been made, the depth of the lake has never been fathomed. The purity and beauty of this body of water, together with its surrounding romantic scenery, never fail to excite the admiration of all who visit it. Of the Prairies, Sauk Prairie is much the largest. It is about 16 square miles in area. It is bounded on the north by the Baraboo bluffs, a chain of high steep bluffs also extend along its western side, and on the south and east is the Wisconsin river. Its surface is undulating, soil good, and a considerable portion is cultivated. It is based (as we suppose all genuine prairies must be) upon a diluvial strata. There are several other smaller prairies in the county, from one to five miles in extent, but as there is such a great uniformity, it is unnecessary to go into detail. The following is a pretty accurate detail of the hotels, stores, manufactories, &c., in the county: 13 taverns, 22 stores, 5 groceries, 4 drug stores, 7 tailors, 3 distilleries, 1 brewery, 2 steam saw mills, 4 grist mills, 1 foundry, 1 furniture, 1 machine, 9 shoe, 15 blacksmiths, 6 waggon, 4 coopers, 5 tinners, and 3 jewellers shops, 1 carding machine, 6 lath and picket factories, 1 pottery, and I tannery; 302 farms, 7 manufactories, and 821 dwellings; 4 district school houses, 3 select schools, and 3 churches. Population in 1840 was 102; 1842, 393; 1846, 1,003; 1847, 2,178; 1850, 4,372. County Officers: Judge, J. M. Clark; Sheriff, Daniel Munsen; Clerk of Court, George Mertons; District Attorney, J. B. Quinley; Register, Edwin P. Spencer; Clerk of Board of Supervisors, James T. Moseley; County Treasurer, Curtis Bates; County Surveyor, ¥m. H. Canfield; Coroner, Royal Gendall.  (John Warren Hunt, Wisconsin Gazetteer..., Madison, 1853)

Total Population 1840
Total Population 1850
Total Population 1860
Free Black Population 1860
Free Black Population 1850
Presidential Election Result 1848
Free Soil
Presidential Election Result 1852
Presidential Election Result 1856
Presidential Election Result 1860
Presidential Election Result 1864
Unconditional Union (1864)